Ace Wire Spring & Form designs and manufactures custom compression springs to the exact requirements of our customers’ needs. Compression springs are open coiled helical springs that resist a compressive force applied axially. They may be tapered, conical, cylindrical, convex or concave in shape. The changing of the springs ends, direction of the helix, material and finish allows compression springs to meet a variety of specially designed spring needs.
Compression springs are a type of wire spring used in everything from appliances to motorized equipment, motors, and more. Compression springs are compressed by a load acting upon them or their ends are compressed, the design of the wire tries to return the spring back to the original shape thus pushing the load back. They are designed and used to resist applied compressive forces or to store energy in the push mode. Typically they are cylindrical helical springs made out round wire. However they can be made conical, oval, barrel or virtually any other shape. The wire can also be round, square or rectangular. Compression springs are the most common spring configuration and are found in many applications such as automotive, aerospace and consumer goods.
One can control the actions of compression springs by how they are designed. The diameter of the coil, the number of coils, the style of the ends even the length and diameter and shape of the wire can all make different compression springs. This is why it is so important to have all the right dimensions when ordering a spring so its performance will meet the needs of the application.
Ace Wire Spring & Form has been manufacturing and designing custom springs since 1939 and has helped thousands of companies not only determine the right spring for the job but offer design and manufacturing of their compression springs. We are large enough to provide capacity and repeatability yet small enough to still offer custom design and production runs for special requirements.
Whether you need help in specifying or designing a spring or just looking for an American manufacturer, Ace Wire Spring & Form would be happy to demonstrate our capabilities and quality for you.
View Our 5/8" Video
View Our Large Compression Springs Video
View Our Small Compression Springs Video
Closed Wound Compression Springs Video
View Our Compression Springs - Slow Coil Video
When Ordering Compression Springs Give the Following Information as Completely as Possible:
Free Length, Maximum, Minimum.
Controlling Diameter, Outside Diameter Maximum. Inside Diameter Minimum. Pitch Diameter. Works Inside (Dia. Hole). Works Over (Dia. Shaft).
Number of Coils
Wire Size. Decimal size if possible.
Material, Kind and Grade.
Loads at deflected positions.
Style of Ends, (see illustrations).
Right or Left Hand Wound.
Finish. Plain unless otherwise specified.
Maximum Solid Length.
Frequency of Compression.
Graphic layout of Specifications for Compression Springs
Plain Ends - Coiled Right Hand Total Coils=Active Coils (N)
Squared and Ground Ends - Coiled Left Hand Total Coils=Active Coils + 2
Squared or Closed End Not Ground - Coiled Right Hand Total Coils=Active + 2
Plain Ends Ground - Coiled Left Hand Total Coils=Active Coils (N)
Trivia Questions and Answers on Compression Springs
Q) What is an advantage Conical Compression Springs offer? A) Conical Compression Springs offer the advantage of a reduced solid height compared to straight compression springs, especially when capable of "telescoping." Conical Compression Springs are cone shaped springs designed to provide a near constant spring rate and a solid height lower than a normal spring. Each spring features a variable pitch to achieve the constant spring rate and coils which nest during deflection to provide a solid height approximately equal to two wire diameters.
Q) What is the most common and recognizable spring type? A) Compression springs are typically the most common and recognizable spring type. They come in a huge range of different styles, which adds to the fact that they are considered as being universal and so readily available.
Q) What are the active coils and dead coils in a compression spring? A) The active coils are the number of coils within a spring which actively participate in providing spring force. The dead coils are the number of coils within a spring which do not actively participate in providing spring force, generally associated with the ends of the spring. Active coils and dead coils add up to the total number of coils in a spring.
Q) Related to "Cut-to-length" compression springs, what is the "spring constant"? A) The Spring Constant, which is also known as the force constant, is the measurement of how stiff and strong the spring is. The higher its value, the more the force you will need to exert to extend the spring.
Q) What is the force exerted by a spring called? A) It is called a "restoring force". It always acts to restore the spring toward equilibrium.
Q) When was the first ever coiled spring invented? A) The spring was created in 1763 by R. Tradwell. It was considered a step up from the leaf spring. The leaf spring had to be lubricated often and was quite squeaky. The best was that the coiled spring didn’t have to be spread apart.
Q) What determines the stresses of a compression spring? A) The dimensions, the load, and the deflection requirements determine the stresses of a compression spring.
Q) What happens when you put a load (the force applied to a spring that causes deflection) on a compression spring? A) The load makes the compression spring shorter. However, the spring pushes back against the load and tries to get back to its original length.
Q) What are the two most important factors which what determine how long a spring will last, or its "life"? A) Stress and stress range.
Q) What is the most common compression spring type? A) The straight metal coil spring. It has the same diameter for the entire length of the spring.
Q) Just like with the number of different varieties of compression springs, they can also have lots of different ends.
The end of the spring is chosen to affect pitch, height and characteristics. The four types are: A) Open Ground Springs - These type of spring ends see no reduction in the pitch - but the last coil has a 1/4 to 3/8 ground surface. Open End Springs - These contain a consistent and reliable coil pitch. Closed End Springs - Always contain a reduced pitch at the end of the coil. Closed Ground Springs - These type of spring ends have a reduced reduction in pitch in the last coil, and have a 270 degree min bearing ground surface.
Q) When is a compression spring fully loaded? A) When it is at its shortest, solid height.
Q) What will happen when a compression spring can no longer provide its intended force? A) It will buckle, which is an off-axis, deformed bending of the spring.